Sunday, July 16, 1769
To La Costa, San Marcos Creek, east of Batiquitos Lagoon.



Gaspar de Portol√°
The 16th, we proceeded for four hours on a good road. On this day's march we came upon two Indian villages of about forty inhabitants. We halted in a canyon where there was much pasture, but it was necessary to dig a waterhole.

Miguel Costansó
We broke camp in the afternoon, and, directing our course to the north and north-northwest over high, hilly country like that just covered, we went through two very pleasant canyons. In the first we saw an Indian village [and the inhabitants] came out to receive us as we passed. One of these made a speech and welcomed us, to which we replied only by gestures and signs of appreciation, but without stopping. They accompanied us for a long distance and showed us some small watering-places to one side of the road. We halted in the second canyon near a small Indian village, and close by the watering-place selected. This was a spring of good water situated on the eastern side of the canyon, and as it was somewhat scanty it was necessary to dig a pool in front of it to receive its small supply, and to wait until it filled in order to water the animals. The country was pleasant, covered with undergrowth and some trees called alisos, and exceedingly abundant in pasture. This canyon was given the name of San Alejo.

Fray Juan Crespi
On this day we two fathers celebrated the holy sacrifice of the Mass, which was heard by all the people, and at half-past two in the afternoon we set out north and northwest, traversing the entire plain; then we climbed a bare hill which followed soon afterwards, with a small wood of little trees unknown to us, and some chaparral. Passing over it, we came out upon some broad grassy mesas, and in about two leagues and a half we descended to a very green valley, with good level land covered with alders. In this valley we came across a village of heathen who, as soon as they saw us, all came running to us, in great good humor. They showed us a little pool of water that was there for their use, and we understood that they were asking us to remain; but, as this was not the spot the explorers had picked out for the camping place, we stopped only a little while. The commander gave some beads to the chiefs, and in passing we called this place the Valley of the Triumph of the Holy Cross, to which we prayed.

We proceeded on our way, accompanied by all the heathen, who told us that farther on there was another small watering place. In about half a league we came to another little valley with many live oaks, where we found a small stream of water which ran a short way in the midst of some blackberry bushes, where we found another village which had only six women. We saw that they had some pots and jugs of baked clay, well made. We called this place the Spring of the Valley of Los Encinos. Then followed extensive hills, with good land and pasture. After about one more league of travel we descended to another very green valley, with good black soil, and from this we entered still another, very green and with good land well covered with grass. In the last valley we made camp near a hill which has two springs of water, one on one side of the hill which had about a limon of water, and one on the other side with about one finger of running water, from which, by digging it out a little, the animals could drink. Both springs are surrounded by Castilian roses, of which I gathered a branch with six roses open and twelve about to open. Right after this valley there comes another, with a village of heathen. As soon as they saw the camp made, the whole village, which was composed of eight men, three women, and four children, came down. Their chief made us a harangue, and when it was concluded they sat down as though they had always known us. One of the heathen came smoking a pipe of black clay, well made. We called this place San Alejo.(1) The day's march occupied four full hours, and we must have covered about four leagues. On the following day, I observed our latitude and it proved to be thirty-three degrees, exactly.

(1) San Marcos Creek, about where the La Costa Resort golf course is now

July 15 To Dieguito Creek and Valley, east of Del Mar
July 17 To Buena Vista Creek, northeast of Carlsbad