Tuesday, December 5, 1769
Day eight at San Jose Creek, where it flows into Carmel Bay.



Gaspar de Portolá
No entry

Miguel Costansó
We did not know what to think of the situation. A port so famous as that of Monterey, so celebrated, and so talked of in its time, by energetic, skillful, and intelligent men, expert sailors who came expressly to reconnoiter these coasts by order of the monarch who at that time governed the Spains, is it possible to say that it has not been found after the most careful and earnest efforts, carried out at the cost of much toil and fatigue? Or, is it admissible to think that it has been filled up, or destroyed in the course of time?

The accounts of General Sebastián Vizcaíno, and his contemporary historians, give the port of Monterey as being in 37° north latitude. We not only saw no signs of it, but not even the possibility that such a port had ever existed in that altitude, for there the coast is bordered by a range of very high hills terminating in the ocean, as the navigators may see.In truth, it would not be strange if we found the port of Monterey at a greater or less latitude than that given in the old accounts (a defect or error that we have noted at nearly all of the places along the coast from the Isla de Cerros to the port of San Francisco, and which should be ascribed to the inadequacy of the instruments used by the navigators of that time in observing the horizontal altitude of the stars. The forestaff was the commonest, and the one generally used by the pilots at sea; it is a crude instrument, difficult to handle, and can only be used to take altitudes with the back to the star, as, facing it, the observation is still more inaccurate and of no practical use. On some coasts, however, which do not give an opportunity for observing the northern horizon (as is the case on these coasts of which we speak), the altitude of the sun, or other heavenly body, whose declination is less than the latitude of the place in which the observer is, can be taken in no other way than by facing it. Therefore, such an observation made with the forestaff must necessarily lead to error, leaving aside the mistakes that may arise from the use of imperfect tables of declination, and who doubts that in these later days we have calculated and ascertained the declinations and right ascensions of the stars with greater precision and exactness than two centuries ago, as much because of the astronomical progress made during this space of time as on account of the better construction and precision of modern instruments?)

Now, then, we will say positively that the port of Monterey does not exist in the latitude (37°) indicated in the old sailing-directions; nor between 37° as far north as 37°44', in which, as we believe, lies the Punta de los Reyes. It happened that we found the port of San Francisco first, according to the signs, which, without the slightest variation (as far as we were able to see and judge) agreed with those given by the pilot Cabrera Bueno. And as this port of San Francisco, according to the pilot mentioned, and the others who have examined these coasts, lies to the north of Monterey, what hopes remain now that this port may be found farther north? Neither is this port south of the parallel of 37°, either in the Sierra de Santa Lucía, or out of it; for, having examined the whole coast, step by step, we have not the least fear that it may have escaped our diligence and search.
We should say, moreover, that on the entire journey we have not seen lands more completely uninhabited than those situated in the latitude above mentioned, especially at the place where one emerges from the Sierra de Santa Lucía, nor have we seen a rougher or more savage people than its inhabitants. Where, then, is its numerous population upon which the old [voyagers] laid so much stress, and what of the extreme docility of its inhabitants?

On the return of the party from the examination of the mountain range, our commander laid before his officers the unhappy plight in which we were placed, without provisions other than sixteen sacks of flour without hope of finding the port and consequently of finding the ship which might aid us in maintaining ourselves in the country, and called them together in council.

Fray Juan Crespi
In view of what is said above about Sierra de Santa Lucia, for without doubt it is that range which we have at the back of this camp, and since we have not found in this vicinity the very celebrated harbor of Monterey, which was enthusiastically described in their time by men of character, skill, and intelligence, experienced navigators who came expressly to explore these coasts by order of the king who was then governing in the Spains; we have to say that it is not to be found, after the most exacting efforts made at the cost of much sweat and fatigue. Or perhaps it may be said that it has been hidden or destroyed by the passage of time, although we have not seen indications to support this view. I therefore suspend my opinion in regard to the matter, but what I can certainly say is that although every effort has been made on the part of the commander and his officers and soldiers, that harbor has not been found. But God permitted us to reach the harbor of my Father San Francisco,and we recognized it to be such, according to the descriptions given in ancient histories; and below Monterey, which is the goal of our long journey, we recognize some marks, such as Sierra de Santa Lucia, the rock shaped like a large top and the Point of Pines. But no harbor at all is found, nor have we seen in the whole journey any country more depopulated than that of this vicinity, nor wilder
peopled, as is seen by this diary, although the contrary is stated in the diary of the voyage made by the commander Sebastian Vizcaino, in which it is said that Monterey is well populated with extremely good heathen. But even this is more easily to be changed than a harbor as famous as Monterey was in the preceding centuries. So I repeat that I suspend my judgment and leave it to the time when we shall be relieved of all doubt and perplexity. The commander, having heard the report of the captain concerning the exploration of Sierra de Santa Lucia, explained to his officers their sad situation, with no provisions but sixteen sacks of flour, without hope of finding the harbor and with it the ship which could relieve us and support us on land, and called them to a council, summoning them in writing to come to the meeting in order that he might make a decision after their opinions were heard. He invited us two friars for the same purpose, handing us a paper in which he asked us to attend the meeting called for to-morrow. We were aware that the commander was inclined to divide the expedition into two divisions, one to go to San Diego, and the other to remain in this place to await the bark, for, perhaps, after its coming it would be easier to recognize and find the desired harbor. As soon as I heard his plan I told him I would gladly remain, and my father companion, Fray Francisco Gomez, said the same, for we were willing to sacrifice ourselves to suffer whatever might come, to accomplish the desired purpose of finding the harbor of Monterey; for we both believed that if that harbor should not be found it might cause the abandonment of the reduction and conversion of this multitude of heathen whom we have seen in these widespread lands; whereas, if the harbor should be discovered it would no doubt start the founding of the missions, and much glory would result to God, the welfare of souls, and the honor of the crown of our king. For the success of the decision in the council that is to be held tomorrow, I have asked the commander to have all the men attend Mass; and to-morrow, the day of San Nicolas I will make a vow to the Holy Ghost in order to ask him to give light to us all, and determine what is the best course to follow for the greater glory of God and the success of the expedition.


December 4 Day seven at San Jose Creek, where it flows into Carmel Bay.
December 6 Day nine at San Jose Creek, where it flows into Carmel Bay.