Friday, August 25, 1769
To Arroyo El Bulito.



Gaspar de Portolá
The 25th, we marched for three hours. We had to open a road on a very high hill, and all the way it was necessary to do this in order to cross the dry gullies, so great was their depth. We have halted in a town which has twenty-five houses inhabited by one hundred and thirty natives. Much water, but little pasture. This town had several canoes. We find the natives more docile every day.

Miguel Costansó
We set out from the Pueblo de San Luis and occupied four hours in making two leagues over high, and very broken land along the shore. One of the ravines entirely obstructed the way because of the ruggedness of its western slope. We decided to take the road along the beach, over the stones, at the foot of a cliff washed by the ocean waves, a road equally impassable except at low tide. This cliff extended for a quarter of a league, and, afterwards, we crossed high hills to the place named San Zeferino Papa. It was an Indian town of twenty-four houses, and two hundred souls, more or less. They received us with affability and kindness. Their situation is rather desolate; they live in a canyon surrounded by hills of no great height, entirely barren, and destitute of trees. In the interior of the country there are other similar hills, equally desolate in appearance, but they are not without pasture, and the land has good soil. An estuary enters the mouth of the canyon and serves as a landing-place for the Indians, who live by fishing, as do all the others on these coasts. There is fresh running water in this canyon, but one must procure it upstream before it mingles with that of the estuary.
At this place we began to experience cold and violent north winds, and we feared that the effects might be harmful and prejudicial to the health.
The horizontal altitude of the lower limb of the sun, observed with the English octant, facing the sun, was found, at noon, to be ... 65°47'
Semidiameter of the sun to be added ... 16' Inclination of the visual horizon in consequence of the observer's eye being six to seven feet above sea-level, subtract 3' 13'
Horizontal altitude of the center of the sun ... 66°00'
Its zenith-distance was found to be ... 24°00'
Its declination at that hour was ... 10°30'
Latitude of the town ... 34°30'

Fray Juan Crespi
This day we set out at half-past two in the afternoon, across the estuary, and took the road along the beach, which continues to the west. We traveled four hours to make two leagues over highlands close to the seashore, the ground being much broken. One of these highlands completely cut off our passage on account of the precipitous nature of its slope on the west. For this reason we had to take the road by the beach over the stones at the foot of a cliff which was washed by the waves of the sea, so that it could be passed only at ebb tide. The cliff lasted about a quarter of a league. We afterwards climbed its highest part to the camping place at a town of heathen of twenty-four houses, which must contain about two hundred souls, and which we named San Seferino, the Pope. They received us with great friendliness, like the others. The place is rather gloomy, and is in a valley. There are other hills to be seen, not very high, all bare, and without a tree. In the interior of the valley similar hills are seen, also very gloomy, although there is plenty of pasturage. Firewood is scarce but the land is of good mellow soil. By the mouth of the valley an estuary enters and serves for a landing place for the canoes of the Indians. There is fresh running water in the valley, but it must be taken above before it mixes with that of the estuary. Two of the islands are in sight. The north wind which we have had in this and the preceding camps has been extremely cold; Senor Constanzo made the observation and the latitude was thirty-four degrees and thirty minutes.

August 24 To the stream in Canada de la Gaviota.
August 26 To East of Canada del Cojo.